Three-Toed Box Turtle

One of two box turtle species at Chert Hollow Farm.bio_three-toed_box_turtleMating generally occurs late spring to early summer. This photo is from June 17, 2014.

On the evening of June 6, 2015, a female dug a nest in a young patch of sweet corn in our main vegetable field: june_natural_turtle_nesting

This nest had at least two young on October 30, 2015. Photo on left shows one (next to a walnut for scale). It was about an inch below the soil surface in the same nest location. The photo on right shows the shell of a sibling below, but I did not dig it out or determine the total count of young in an effort to minimize disturbance to the nest.oct_natural_baby_turtle

 

Spotted Apatelodes Moth

I saw this moth resting on a sage plant one morning in early June and grabbed the camera; it is not one that we see routinely:bio_moth_Apatelodes_torrefacta

The Butterflies and Moths of North America website has more information on this species. This sighting is recorded in their database.

Silvery Checkerspot

The Silvery Checkerspot is a fairly common butterfly at Chert Hollow Farm. This one was visiting the clover in the aisles of a vegetable growing area:bio_silvery_checkerspot

The Butterflies and Moths of North America website has more information on this species.

Wavy-Lined Emerald

This moth was resting on the house one morning in September 2013:bio_Synchlora_aerata

The Butterflies and Moths of North America website has more information on this species.

Eastern Comma

Eastern Commas are relatively common at Chert Hollow Farm; this one found its way into the greenhouse, where I photographed it one morning in late May 2014:

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Indigo Bunting

Indigo Buntings are common summer birds that breed at Chert Hollow Farm. They are especially common in the main vegetable field, where they feed on plant matter and arthropods (hopefully lots of pests), and where we enjoy watching them.

We occasionally find nests in tall vegetation (look closely in the lower section of the photo):

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Here’s a closeup of that nest. It has three Indigo Bunting eggs (the small ones) and three Brown-Headed Cowbird eggs (the big speckled ones). bio_indigo_bunting_nest

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American Lady

I found this caterpillar on May 27, 2014 on the ground not far from the chicken shed, brought it back to the house, looked it up in Caterpillars of Eastern North America, and identified it as a American Lady. It reportedly eats Pussytoes, so I fed it some; not surprisingly, there is a sizable stand of these near the location I found the caterpillar. The caterpillar formed its chrysalis after a relatively brief stay in captivity.bio_American_Lady_caterpillar

The adult emerged on June 5: bio_American_Lady_adult

It flew away before I was able to get a photo with its wings open.

Beautiful Wood-Nymph (aka Bird Dropping Moth)

I photographed this one day while picking okra. I had grabbed the camera to photograph a Spring Peeper that was hanging out on an okra leaf, and so I was on the lookout for other interesting critters, as well. When I saw this, my first impression was, “Hey, it is a bird dropping.” But it seemed too symmetrical, so I took a closer look, wondering if it was one of the caterpillars that mimics bird droppings, and to my surprise, it flew. After it settled down, I snapped this photo.

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Gold Moth

We’ve often found Gold Moth caterpillars in late summer/early fall on Crownbeard plants in front of the house. bio_gold_moth_on_crown-beard

Cross-Striped Cabbage Worm

bio_cross-striped_cabbage_wormThe Cross-Striped Cabbage Worm is a pest of brassicas, especially cabbage, broccoli, and brussels sprouts. We do see season-to-season and year-to-year variations in the total population size, as well as the population ratio between these and other cabbage worms (such as the Imported Cabbageworm). More often than not, the Cross-Striped Cabbage Worms are the most prolific here.

These caterpillars can quickly defoliate brassica plants, such as the Brussels Sprout plant shown below.

We use several strategies to try to keep damage within acceptable levels. We’ve had some success using shade cloth on hoops over fall cabbage beds to exclude adult moths and prevent them from laying eggs on the plants. Trap crops of collard plants, which are a favored food, can sometimes help, if we keep on top of controlling the populations on the collards plants. bio_cross-striped_damage_br_sproutsWhen preventative methods fail, we’ll resort to “digital control”, that is, using our fingers (digits) to squish the caterpillars. Repeated periodically with attention to life cycle timing, this can be a relatively effective method (though one that is unpopular among workers).

Though it is allowed for organic production, we have never resorted to spraying Bt (a bacterium that kills cabbage worms). We are even less likely to do so since discovering in 2013 that we also have a parasitoid wasp of the genus Cotesia that eats out the innards of some of the cabbage worm species. As usual, any pesticide, no matter how benign and targeted, has unintended ecosystem consequences, and we prefer methods that keep the beneficials (such as parasitoid wasps) working for us.